toolsMany policy tools can be used to develop spatial plans and implement them. Surprisingly there have been few attempts to classify and illustrate the whole range of tools available. Partly based on ideas and examples developed during classes with several cohorts of students at TUDelft, this newly published article outlines the different policy tools that planners have at their disposal to shape urban and regional development. The article illustrates the different ways in which planning tools have been conceptualized, highlights a wide variation in their interpretation, and sets out a new classification for studying and teaching policy tools for spatial planning.

Stead D. (2021). Conceptualizing the Policy Tools of Spatial Planning. Journal of Planning Literature,


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